Environmental Impacts of Shrimp Farming and Benefit of Pond Intensification for Sustainable Aquaculture: A Review
Keywords:Keywords: Aquaculture, mangroves, ponds, biofloc, probiotic, water, shrimp.
Abstract. The goal of sustainable aquaculture is to provide a continued supply farmed aquatic nutrients beneficial for human sustenance without harming existing ecosystems or exceeding the ability of the planet to renew the natural resources required for aquaculture production (Nevin, 2020). Shrimp is the single most valuable seafood product that enters world trade today. Some of these farms are built in mangrove areas. To accommodate for this high demand farmers, intensify their production, thus effecting the environment by surpassing the areas carrying capacity. Factory farming, has the potential to deplete soils, reduces genetic stock, degrades coastal ecosystems and local water quality. These problems are mainly associated with pondconstruction and operation (Bolanos, 1999). Shrimp aquaculture can be environmentally sustainable with the proper design, operation, management, and monitoring. The use of a closed or recirculating system for growing shrimp is the best method for protecting the environment. Water quality needs to also be checked for both semi-intensive and intensive systems for managing the health of the shrimp and preventing disease and viral outbreaks. PAS offer a potential advantage over other culture systems because waste nutrients can recycle back into a crop, greatly increasing feed-use efficiency. Waste nutrients in ponds are assimilated by endogenous microflora, thereby transforming waste into a potential food source (biofloc). BFT is reliable for the cost effective, environment friendly fish production. BFT is a preferable technique for facing economic, ecological, and social issues relevant to current aquaculture. The system has advantage in intensive farming practices. An important feature of this technology is ammonia wastes are consumed by bacteria for their growth that increases the microbial biomass yield as well as improves the water quality. Previous studies indicated that the addition of probiotics in the water or feed increases growth, immunity, reduces animals to expose pathogenic bacteria and stops the growth of harmful pathogens. There is rapidly growing literature on the application of probiotics which indicates that it is one of the important methods developed to control disease at the farm; therefore, the addition of probiotics is common practice in fish farming (Daniel and Nageswari, 2017).
resources in fish and shrimp feeds. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society Chatvijitkul S, Boyd CE, Davis DA, McNevin A, 2017b. Pollution potential indicators for feed-based fish and shrimp culture Cudmore WW, 2009. Shrimp farming-environmental and social impacts Danieh N, Nageswari P, 2016. Exogenous probiotics on biofloc based aquaculture: a review Èabak V, Dickerson JWT and Stanier MW, 1963. Response of young rats to rehabilitation with diets containing different amounts of protein after deprivation of protein or of calories. British Journal of Nutrition Effendy I, Deen SA, Chithambaran S, 2016. Semi intensive and semi biofloc methods for the culture of Indian white prawn, Fenneropenaeus indicus in high-density polyethylene Fachrul MF, Rinanti A. 2018. Bioremediation of Microplastic Pollutant in Aquatic Ecosystem by Indigenous Bacteria. In: Rinanti A (ed) Pros. Semin. Nas. Kota Berkelanjutan. Trisakti University, Jakarta, 3 Mei 2017. [Indonesian]. DOI: 10.25105/psnkb.v1i1.2910 Halim MA, Nahar S, Nabi MM, 2019. Biofloc technology in aquaculture and its potentiality: a review Hargreaves JA, 2013. Biofloc production systems for aquaculture. SouthernRegional. Aquaculture Center Publication Hargreaves JA, Brummett R, Tucker CS, 2019. The future of aquaculture. In J Lucas P. Southgate & C Tucker (Eds.), Aquaculture: Farming aquatic animals and plants Ilman M, Dargush P, Dart P, 2016. A historical analysis of the drivers of loss and degradation of Indonesia's mangroves Kasan NA, Dagang AN, Abdullah MI, 2018. Application of biofloc technology (BFT) in shrimp aquaculture industry Ma Z, Knotzer A, Billanes JD, Jorgensen BN, 2020. A Literature Review of Energy Flexibility in District Heating with A Survey of the Stakeholders’ Participation McGarvey C, O’neal S, Scannel S, 2017. Environmental impact of shrimp aquaculture and integrated multi-tropic aquaculture (IMTA) as a solution Moss SM, 1995. Production of growth-enhancing particles in a plasticlinedshrimp pond. Aquaculture Moss SM, Forster IP, Tacon AGJ, 2006. Sparing effect of pond water onvitamins in shrimp diets Mustafa A, Sapo I, Paena M, 2009. Studi penggunaan produk kimia dan biologi pada budidaya udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei) di tambak kabupaten Pesawaran provinsi Lampung Nakajima T, Hudson MJ, Uchiyama J, Makibayashi K, Zhang J, 2019. Common carp aquaculture in Neolithic China dates back 8,000 years. Nature Ecology and Evolution presented at the Proceedings of the VI International conference “Water and fish,” University of Belgrade, Serbia. Ray AJ, Lewis BL, Browdy CL, Leffler JW, 2010. Suspended solids removal toimprove shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) production and an evaluation of aplant-based feed in minimal-exchange, superintensive culture systems Ray AJ, Lotz JM, 2009. In press Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) production and stableisotope dynamics in clear-water RAS versus biofloc systems Ray AJ, Lotz JM, 2014. Comparing a chemoautotrophic-based biofloc system andthree heterotrophic-based systems receiving different carbohydrate sources Ray AJ, Seaborn G, Wilde SB, Leffler JW, Lawson A, Browdy CL, 2010. Characterization of microbial communities in minimalexchange, intensiveaquaculture systems and the effects of suspended solids management Ray AJ, Shuler AJ, Leffler JW, Browdy CL, 2009. Microbial ecology andmanagement of biofloc systems. In: Browdy, C.L., Jory, D.E. (Eds.), The RisingTide, Proceedings of the Special Session on Sustainable Shrimp Farming Ray JA, Drury TH, Cecil A, 2018. Comparing clear-water RAS and biofloc system: Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) production, water quality, and biofloc nutritional contributions estimated using stable isotopes.
Tacon AG, Hasan MR, Metian M, 2011. Demand and supply of feed ingredients for farmed fish and crustaceans: Trends and prospects (FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 564). Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization Tacon AG, Metian M, 2008. Aquaculture feed and food safety: The role of FAO and Codex Alimentarius Tacon AG, Metian M, 2015. Feed matters: Satisfying the feed demand of aquaculture. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture Teletchea F, 2015. Domestication of marine species: Update and perspectives. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering Teletchea F, 2019a. Animal domestication: A brief overview. In F. Teletchea (Ed.) Animal domestication Teletchea F, 2019b. Fish domestication: An overview. In F. Teletchea (Ed.) Animal Domestication Teletchea F, 2019c. Fish domestication in aquaculture: Reassessment and emerging questions Teletchea F, Fontaine P, 2013. Beyond the levels of domestication in fish: Must all farmed species be domesticated? Paper Teletchea F, Fontaine P, 2014. Levels of domestication in fish: Implications for the sustainable future of aquaculture. Fish & Fisheries Tucker CS, 1999. Characterization and management of effluents from
aquaculture ponds in the southeastern United States. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication 470 Tucker CS, Brune DE, Torrans EL, 2014. Partitioned pond aquaculture systems. World Aquaculture Tucker CS, Hargreaves JA, 2012. Freshwater ponds. In J. Tidwell (Ed.), Aquaculture production methods Tucker CS, Pote JH, Wax CL, Brown,TW, 2017. Improving water-use efficiency for ictalurid catfish aquaculture in northwest Mississippi, USA. Aquaculture Research Tucker CS, Steeby JA, 1995. Daytime mechanical water circulation of channel catfish ponds Uddin MJ, Hossain MS, Fakhruddin ANM, 2013. Impacts of shrimp farming on the coastal environment of Bangladesh and approach for management Valenti WC, Kimpara JM, Preto BL, Moraes-Valenti P, 2018. Indicators of sustainability to assess aquaculture systems. Ecological Indicators Zhang P, Zhang X, Li J, Huang G, 2006. The effects of body weight, temperature,salinity, pH, light intensity and feeding condition on lethal DO levels of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)